How To Construct An Academic Essay

construct an academic essay

construct an academic essay

1. Research the topic.

Find relevant information that will bolster the content of your essay.

2. Write an outline.

An outline is an organized list of points you wish to make in your essay, in the order they make sense and should be written. Getting your thoughts organized beforehand makes writing the actual essay much quicker and easier, since you know what direction you’re going in.

3. Write the first draft of the essay.

This will not be the final product, so you should not treat it as such. Write what first comes to mind following your outline, it is okay if it doesn’t meet the length requirements quite yet. Try to put in all the punctuation, capitalize beginning letters and proper nouns, and follow your outline.

4. Divide your thoughts into paragraphs.

Each point on your outline should be its own paragraph. A paragraph should contain a minimum of three sentences to stand on its own.

5. Try to follow a pattern of ‘Claim’ followed by ‘Evidence’. Then follow it with ‘Impact’.

The claim is a statement, which is then supported by the evidence such as a reference or a quotation in context. The impact is an intelligent review of how or why that claim is important in the context of the essay. The ‘impact’ then becomes the claim of the following paragraph, and so on.

6. Use transitional phrases.

A transitional phrase eases the reader from one paragraph to the next. If your outline was written well, these phrases should link the content in one paragraph to the next.

7. Edit the draft.

After you’ve written the second draft, edit it. If you are experienced with grammar, you can start sentence by sentence.

8. Write your final draft.

Be sure this is in the correct format. Use both the computer’s spell-check, and read it over yourself as well. If you are unsure of your spelling or grammar, have a friend, classmate or family member read it before you print the copy you plan on handing in.

Writing An Academic Paper

My purpose in writing this guide is to help make you into better writers and to help you become better able to articulate your perspective

Research Papers or Topic Papers

Most non-fiction class papers fall into one of two categories: research papers or topic papers. For research papers, you are expected to pick a topic and engage in independent research to find information and sources. For topic papers, you are usually given a topic based on the course readings and discussion and are expected to make use of those resources to write your paper.

Thesis Statements

writing an academic paper

writing an academic paper

Once you have an idea of what you want to say, and have some grasp of what others have said, you need to make your ideas more concrete by coming up with a thesis sentence(s). A thesis indicates the main argument of your paper. A good thesis should be debatable, specific, and concise.

It is also crucial to remember to put your thesis up front. This is what you should be doing during the entire paper. The purpose of course papers is to give the instructor your informed opinion on your topic. Your thesis is a guide to the view you will present in the rest of the paper. Put it up front and stick to it.

Introductions and Conclusions

Introductions are just that. They allow you to introduce your argument to your reader and vice versa. They also try to convince the reader why he should care about what you have to say. Part of writing a good thesis is building up to it with an introduction that whets the reader’s appetite. Don’t just drop your reader in the middle of an argument. Start with something interesting and sufficiently general, and then draw your reader in by applying that general idea to the topic at hand. Introductions should be general but not too general.


When you make use of other people’s specific ideas, you must give them credit for those ideas. This is your way of showing others that you have both done your research and understand the importance of your sources in developing your own arguments. If you are looking for references online, and don’t want your IP address to show in the logs of the website you are visiting, you can try private proxy. It can make your visits anonymous.

How To Improve Your Writing Skills

improve your writing skills

improve your writing skills

Strong writing skills in English come from practice and determination. No one is born an excellent writer. Anyone can be a good writer if they are determined enough.

Everyone has a different reason why they need to improve their writing. Some may need it for their research papers, while some might want to start a blog and doesn’t want to embarrass themselves. We may have different reasons but we certainly want the same thing, to improve our English writing skills. So, here are some things to help you out:

1. Put all your writings in one journal or notebook

Buy a notebook or journal or start an electronic journal. By keeping your writing all in the same place, you will be able to see how much you are improving and keep it organized.

2. Practice!

The importance of writing daily is that you start to create a new habit. Writing every day in English will soon become natural and something you look forward to. You will not see a significant improvement if you are not dedicated to becoming a better writer in English.

3. Choose a topic and start writing about it

Don’t get stuck on figuring out what to write about. You can write about anything.

4. Start revising

Draft means a preliminary version of piece of writing. Sometimes, your best writing becomes better after you take a break and work on a second or third draft. When you revise your work you are often able to get your message across more clearly.

5. Think outside the box

Don’t write about the same thing every day or you will get bored. Try writing the same story from different perspectives or different tenses. Don’t write about topics in the obvious way. Be creative!

6. Second opinion

Have a friend that knows English correct or edit your work. Having another person read your work helps generate more ideas to better your writing. Often having another set of eyes look at your writing helps find mistakes that you have overlooked.

7. Find a place where you feel comfortable to write

You should try writing in different places or at different times of the day. Experiment in finding the right environment for you to write.

Tips On Making Dissertation

Working on a dissertation can easily become an all-consuming process. Want to learn how to get better organized and speed up the process, check out these 4 tips to help you get started.

Just like in making a dissertation, we want to make everything easier and faster so that we won’t get stressed out without deadlines. That is why we should always make things ahead of time. But, of course, we still need to socialize, that is where facebook comes in. we can do a lot of things in our facebook accounts, like read articles, see pictures and like them too. But if you are having less likes with your amazing posts, try, to help you get more likes.

tips on making dissertation

tips on making dissertation

1. Pick your advisor carefully

Make sure your thesis advisor is someone you can work with. Will they respond to your questions and drafts quickly? Do they explain things in terms you can understand? Are they supportive? What matters is whether they’re approachable, reliable, reassuring, give detailed feedback and don’t mind the odd panicked email. And don’t be afraid to request a change if they’re not working out, she adds.

2. Focus your topic

Experts agree that one of the biggest problems they see is people who choose topics that are too broad. It is best if you can capture your thesis in a single sentence. Having a properly focused topic also helps limit your research and, eventually, defend it before the committee.

3. Learn to use the tools

You don’t want to get to nearly the end and then find out you lost the file, tracked your references incorrectly, or couldn’t figure out how to get the headers and footers to work. Use software to track your references during your research. Learn to use the features in your word processor ahead of time, and work on them, perhaps on days when you don’t feel like writing. Always back up early and often – to the cloud, to your email, to a thumb drive, to a CD.

4. Eat the elephant

One bite at a time. Similarly, don’t think of writing a dissertation, but think of it in smaller terms – chapters, sections, pages, even sentences. Whether you write for a certain time or a certain length, the important thing is to do some work on it every day.

Dissertation Formatting Guidelines

After you chose your topic, did several researches, collected your data, then you have to write your dissertation paper that you will submit and present to your professors and school board. This is going to be the final paper that you have to submit before obtaining your degree. Here is the general formatting guidelines on how to produce your dissertation paper.


All four margins of the page must be a least one inch, with all of the materials including figures, tables, headers/footers, footnotes/endnotes, and images appearing within the margins of the manuscript. Only the page number is exempted in this rule, which should be at least ¾” from the edge of the page. If the charts, graphs, and illustrations cannot fit in the portrait orientation, these can be placed horizontally or landscape orientation with the page number appearing on the ‘right-side up’ to match the rest of the page numbers in the manuscript.


For the text, abstract, dedication, acknowledgements, and table of contents, all of these should be double-spaced. While footnotes, endnotes, bibliographic entries are single-spaced with double spacing between each entry.

Required order and page numbering

See the table below on how all dissertations should be structured.

Required Order Page Numbering
Cover pages
and abstract
1. Title Page No page numbers; pages are not counted
2. Copyright Page
3. Abstract
Prefatory pages 1. Table of Contents Lower case Roman numerals beginning with “i” centered at the bottom of each page
2. List of Charts, Graphs, Illustrations
3. Acknowledgments
4. Dedication
5. Preface (if applicable)
Main body and
all other pages
1. Main body of the dissertation (including all introduction and chapter pages, graphs, photos, figures, and tables) Arabic numerals beginning with “1” centered at the bottom of each page
2. References and/or Bibliography
3. Appendices (if applicable)



The preferred fonts are 10-point Arial or 12-point Times New Roman. But legible serif or sans-serif standard font may also be used and should be equivalent in size. The font should be uniform throughout the text. For the footnotes, tables, graphs, appendices, pagination, abstract, table of contents, their fonts can be separated or just slightly smaller in size.

Title page

You have to use full proper names of people, organisms, and places. Use italics for the title of other works or scientific name of organisms. Be sure to include all appropriate accent and diacritical marks

Copyright page

It should be placed next to the title page, located at the centered bottom of an otherwise blank page. It will include the year the manuscript was completed, your name, and the “All rights reserved” statement.


Next to the copyright page, the abstract includes the header, title of the dissertation, your name. It should be double-spaced and no word limit. It should not include diagrams, images, abbreviations, or formula.


It may be placed at the bottom of the page, at the end of the chapter, or at the end of the dissertation before the bibliography. You should verify the desired footnote style with your adviser.


There are different styles that you can use, depending on the requirements. You should ask your advisor as well regarding this. The most recent editions of these style manuals are: Kate Turabian, MLA Style Sheet, The Chicago Manual of Style, Publication Manual or APA style.

5 Mistakes You Might Be Making In Choosing Your Dissertation Topic

Developing your dissertation topic is the first step in making your paper. But choosing your topic can be one of the most challenging aspects before you are able to start. Obviously, it is really important that you know your topic well enough. You have to be able to provide credible supporting documents. Make sure that your hypotheses are supported by facts and known researches. You also have to know how you will be able to defend your choice of topic. Make sure that you are fully aware of what you are going to write about. Most importantly, pick a topic that you are really interested with. Since writing a dissertation paper will take so much of your time, it will be best if you really like the topic so that you will have fun doing your research. If you don’t like it, doing your dissertation paper can bring more pressure and stress to you.



You have to remember that your dissertation paper is going to evaluate your whole college years. It will be the basis if you truly understand your degree and if you learn everything that you needed. You will have to face your school panel and review whether you are eligible to graduate or not, depending on the dissertation that you will present to them. Thus, it is important that you will produce the best dissertation paper.

Since choosing your dissertation topic is important and a very challenging part, here are the five mistakes that you should definitely avoid:

1. Never try to please everyone.

Choosing a topic at the start can be vague and will definitely make you uncertain about it. You can ask for advice from your professors and other students. But after acquiring great ideas and several resources, it might make you lose track of what you really wanted to do. You have to make sure that you fully understand your topic and it piques your interest, so that when you are doing your paper it will be less stressful. Do not worry if you are having a problem coming up with a specific topic, just be patient. Along the process, you can improve it and make it better.

2. Don’t choose an overly ambitious topic, especially the one that includes too many variables.

You have to set clear parameters on your topic. Every topic will definitely have limitations because you won’t be able to tackle a general topic. A topic with too many variables is going to be difficult to research, write, and you will surely have a hard time finding meaningful results. It will be a really long and painful process of doing your dissertation. Therefore, it is better to choose a topic that you know that you can complete and be able to fully explain and present.

3. Never drag your topic and expand it more.

While in the process of researching about your topic, you will be able to learn more and it can result into the expansion of your main idea. You have to talk to your adviser and know how to keep boundaries to your topic. You have to put parameters that will limit it. Otherwise, your topic can result into a complex one and might not be even doable. Remember to keep focus on your main idea.

4. Never plan a topic without preparing about its process.

After you choose a topic, it is important that you should plan how you are going to write, present, and defend it. Make sure that your hypotheses will be supported by credible facts and published researches. Know that you will be able to obtain your target data and important information about the topic. Be sure to have a reasonably clear research method to finalize your topic.

5. Never choose a topic which you cannot obtain or create a data.

Some students can have a great idea. But most of the time, they were not thinking about its feasibility. Remember that some theories can’t be applied or be done in real life. You have to think if the data collection, access, and usability on theories can be applied in real life situations. If you cannot create or obtain the data, then you can’t complete your research. And if you can’t complete your research, you won’t get your degree.

Note that the dissertation paper is unlike any research paper that you submitted in college. You cannot and should never think about cramming and doing it overnight. It should present the things that you learned in college. Demonstrate to your professors and school board that you deserve to hold a degree title from your school. Let them know that after you graduate, that you will make your Alma Mater proud to produce a graduate like you.

If you wanted to know more about the guidelines in choosing your dissertation topic, you can check Clare Graduate University and Harvard University website. They are providing students several great ideas on how to properly select a topic. If you know a way or wanted to share your ideas and experience with writing, you can use a Link Generator to share your files to other students. With this link generator, even large files can be downloaded in just a few minutes.

What is Dissertation?

A dissertation is a final year project and another form of assessment that differs from other module assessments like essays and exams. With the dissertation, students are expected to produce a high quality paper. They have to produce a literature review, with the method for undertaking the study, write up their findings and discuss the outcomes of the research.


Dissertation, commonly known as thesis, is an important part in the educational experience of the undergraduate or graduate student. College professors view it as a cumulative effort, a representative of the whole educational experience of the students. Its quality is measured based on different criteria, which includes: format, consistency, language development, source quality and overall presentation. Even a simple error in this kind of document can have a big difference between a publishable dissertation and a document that is quickly dismissed and not given a second look.


For a very long time, undergraduates and graduate students have been challenged by the researching and formatting requirements of theses and dissertations. There are also other challenges that students have to face like: inaccessible professors; busy librarians; and unskilled research assistants. But the most difficult element of developing a dissertation includes: understanding the formatting; creating effective bibliographies; and collecting and summarizing valuable research documents to provide support for the hypothesis postulated in the author’s introduction.

In making a dissertation there are several things that students need to remember:

  • Undertake an extensive program of reading and research.
  • Choose their own subject of study and define its nature and scope. This will demonstrate intellectual independence and originality.
  • Engage in sustained analysis, interpretation and comparison of a substantial collection of data.
  • Be able to present the result of research in a clearly written, academically rationally argued, logically organized and properly referenced form.

During the whole process of making the dissertation: the student will improve their subject expertise; good preparation for further study and research at postgraduate level; students will learn to work independently and methodically in a wide range of intellectually demanding context. Besides the ability to demonstrate intellectual, study, research and presentation skills that students were able to develop throughout their degree course, they will also be able to create something which they exclusively own.

Proper Citation

In creating a dissertation paper, the most important thing to remember is to avoid plagiarism. Most people think that plagiarism is just about copying another person’s work or borrowing someone else’s idea. But using the terms ‘copying’ and ‘borrowing’ might sound a little bit shallow compared to the severity of this act. So what does plagiarism really mean? In the Merriam–Webster Online Dictionary, to plagiarize means:

  • To steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one’s own;
  • Use another’s production without crediting the source;
  • To commit literary theft;
  • Presenting as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.

Based from the U.S. law, words and ideas can be stolen and there is a way to protect it from other people. Copyright laws are used to protect the expression of original ideas that are also considered as intellectual property, the same way as original inventions are treated. The ideas and words can be protected as long as it was recorded in books or computer file.


Case of plagiarism can be easily avoided by properly citing your sources. You have to acknowledge that some material in your dissertation has been borrowed and present the necessary information regarding your resources. Information should include: name of the author; title of the work; name and location of the company that published the work; date it was published; and the page numbers of the material. There are several websites that can guide you in writing your dissertation like Purdue Owl and There are also website that can check for plagiarisms on your work like

Plagiarism can be further stopped if people will be properly informed and educated. If you wanted to share more information about writing dissertation and proper citation, you can create a website dedicated to it and post articles. You can promote your website through social media pages or forums about dissertation and by buying website traffic. With this, your page will boost popularity and visits. You can go to to know more about their offers.

Some Tips on How to Write Your Dissertation

  • Title

You need a working title to focus on throughout your research. It may be that you will improve on the wording later but make sure the title you begin with means something.

  • Introduction

Set out your reasons for undertaking this particular study in your Introduction. Set your ideas into a theoretical/academic context.

Your statement should:

  1. Outline the problem – what is the key issue?
  2. Explain why you think this is worth investigating
  3. Describe the nature and purpose of your research
  4. Indicate what you hope to achieve.
  • Objectives

The primary focus of your research project is usually expressed in terms of aims and objectives.

A goal or a step on the way to meeting the aim; how you will achieve it. Objectives use specific statements which define measurable outcomes.

Objectives should be S.M.A.R.T.:

  1. Specific – Be precise about what you are going to do.
  2. Measureable –You will know when you have reached your goal.
  3. Achievable –A less ambitious but completed objective is better than an over-ambitious one that you cannot possibly achieve.
  4. Realistic – Do you have the necessary resources to achieve the objective?
  5. Time constrained – Determine when each stage needs to be completed.
  • Methodology

Remember to do the following when writing your Methodology:

  1. Explain what methods you intend to use when researching and developing your report.
  2. Use a descriptive writing approach.
  3. Do not include your questionnaires, interview transcripts.
  4. Discuss with your project supervisor the extent and level of detail required.

Example of a methodology statement

The following sample statements are intended to give a flavor of the approach one could take but they are not to be assumed to represent a complete methodology.

  • Literature survey

A table of key terms will be constructed and the sources located will be correlated with this. A secondary cross-reference table will be developed so that data can be viewed from different perspectives.

  • Data collection and sampling

The survey will collect quantitative data on the range of goods requiring an end-user license. A systematic yet random sample of companies will be drawn from members of the British Business Register.

  • Data analysis

As the number of companies has yet to be established the data analysis method has not yet been decided.

  • Scope and Limitations

Set the boundaries clearly in this section.

Tips on Making a Successful Project Presentation

Tips on Making a Successful Project Presentation

I started this website to help students and other people with their dissertation problems. Your dissertation might be finished but don’t forget the final presentation! You have to make your audience understand your dissertation and also to NOT make them go to sleep! Here are some thoughts that can help you with your final presentation:


  • Organize the content of your presentation

The first step is to know the purpose and understand what you want to accomplish with this presentation. Once you have clearly defined the objective, then you can begin to do your research, make an outline or mind map, prepare any graphics and write your words.

Even though Aristotle was speaking about persuasive speeches having two parts, he later went on to say that most speeches have four parts:

  • Introduction
  • Statement
  • Argument
  • Epilogue

This structure has withstood the test of time and can be helpful with the organization of the content of the presentation.


Above all it is important to remember that every part of the presentation concerns the audience. Never give a generic presentation. Personalize it, relate it to the news of the day.

  • Don’t make your audience guess

It is good to follow the concept development from the beginning, step by step. However, your audience is looking forward to hear about your final solution. Don’t keep them guessing for too long.

  • Make it plain and simple

The talk about telling a story is not a fresh approach. Explaining your product from the user perspective in simple narrative and pointing out the problem you are solving is a must.

  • Talk is more important than slides

If you are listening to a good presentation, given by a solid presenter with confident and a clear message, you forgive that the slide design isn’t top notch. Sadly, it doesn’t work vice versa; a doubtful presenter with great slides will lose out to the showmen. Give your talk first to yourself and your dog without the slideshow couple of times and only after that make your PowerPoint.

  • Don’t forget your collaborators

Present yourself and praise your co-workers, even if your team wasn’t a dream team and you had some hard time together. Be polite, and make your best appearance.

  • Enjoy

This is the most important thing to do. Because when you are enjoying, you are going to show confidence.